Necessary floor knowledge for decoration

2022-07-22
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The main varieties of flooring are solid wood flooring (lacquer board and plain board), solid wood composite flooring and reinforced composite flooring. In addition, there are bamboo floors and cork floors, but they are not widely used

first, solid wood flooring:

1 solid wood flooring standard:

the standard of solid wood flooring is gb/t15306-2001. The standard has been implemented since May 1st, 2002, and the original 94 standard has been replaced at the same time. The new national standard has made important amendments and supplements to the old national standard. It is mainly to modify the contents of some sizes and defects, and supplement the specifications of applicable tree species and the requirements for painted boards. At the same time, the requirements for impact toughness, hardness and wear resistance of wood are cancelled. The main contents of the new standard are as follows:

(1) appearance quality requirements: see the attached table

(2) machining accuracy: see the attached table

(3) shape position deviation: see the attached table

(4) physical and mechanical properties: Mark: in addition to the requirements of laws and regulations, the grade, wood name and batch shall be marked

(5) wood name: in the past, the market used to have disorderly names, which were so strange that fake and shoddy were mixed. What kind of golden grapefruit, gold does not change, rich and valuable wood, so that customers can't distinguish between true and false, and don't know whether it's good or bad. Therefore, the new standard must be strictly nominal and stipulated in the form of an appendix. When selling, the test report issued by the authoritative department shall prevail

due to different materials, the hardness, natural color and texture of solid wood floors also differ greatly, which are roughly the following:

Quercus Quercus (oak), pear, heavy ant wood (Abbey), borneol (Cinnamomum camphora) fragrant winged beans, Gamba pairs, Baodi beans, kundian iron camphor (iron wood), mountain olive, etc

medium: teak, Indian eggplant (pineapple), sallow (Palau), fragrant tea Cornus (rutaecarpus)

soft: Fraxinus mandshurica, birch

light color: Fagus (beech), birch, olive

middle color: Quercus Quercus, Fraxinus mandshurica, Sasa, Cornus officinalis

dark color: teak, Indian eggplant, heavy ant wood, fragrant winged bean, wood pod bean (pincardo)

coarse grain: teak, Quercus Quercus, Trigonella, Fraxinus mandshurica

fine lines: Cyclobalanopsis glauca, birch

2 moisture content of solid wood floor:

the moisture contained in wood has three forms. One is the water existing in the cell cavity and cell gap, that is, the water existing in the capillary, which is called free water. The second is the water absorbed by the cell wall, which is called adsorbed water. The third kind is the water that constitutes cell tissue, which is called chemical water

when the moisture of moist wood evaporates, the first thing to lose is free water. When the free water evaporates and the adsorbed water is still saturated, the moisture content is called fiber saturation point moisture content

dimensional saturation point is the turning point of wood properties. Above the fiber saturation point, the strength of wood is constant and does not change with the change of moisture content. At the same time, there is no change in the volume of wood. When the moisture content drops below the fiber saturation point, that is, the adsorbed water in the cell wall begins to evaporate, the strength increases with the decrease of moisture content, and the phenomenon of wet expansion and dry shrinkage also appears obviously. The moisture content of different wood fibers at the saturation point is about 22% - 33%

humidity and temperature in various regions of nature are relatively stable in different seasons. The moisture content of wood will reach a relatively constant when it is in this relative temperature and humidity environment for a long time. At this time, the water content is called the equilibrium water content (for example, the annual equilibrium water content in Shanghai is 4.6%)

the equilibrium moisture content of wood changes with the temperature and humidity of their environment. When there is a difference between the equilibrium moisture content and the environmental humidity, it tends to be close to the environment. This leads to the phenomenon of wet expansion and dry shrinkage of wood, which is a unique physical phenomenon of wood

wood is also an anisotropic body. The moisture content of wood in actual use is below the fiber saturation point, so the gain and loss of moisture is mainly the adsorbed water of cell wall. Most cells of wood grow longitudinally, and its expansion and contraction are perpendicular to the direction of cell wall. As a floor, we can find that there is generally no expansion and contraction in the longitudinal direction, while the expansion and contraction rate in the width direction is generally 3% - 6% (refers to the change of wood moisture content below the fiber saturation point moisture content)

it can be seen that it is very important to control the moisture content of the floor. Attention must be paid not only to production, but also to laying, so as not to allow the floor to deform due to moisture

3 drying balance treatment of solid wood floor:

purpose

(1) achieve the specified balanced moisture content that adapts to the environmental characteristics of the area of use

(2) eliminate the internal stress existing and produced in the growth and processing of wood

(3) adjust and restore deformation

process

(1) natural drying takes about 30 ~ 40 days to make the moisture content reach about 30%

(2) manual drying takes about 10 ~ 30 days to make the moisture content below 10%. At the same time, this process distills the pulp juice in the wood, balances the wood cell wall tissue, and the drying shrinkage performance tends to be stable

(3) curing treatment takes about 10 ~ 20 days. Through this process, the three purposes of wood drying are finally achieved

drying balance treatment is the so-called heat treatment. The length of this treatment will vary with different materials, but it cannot be artificially shortened. There is a wrong saying in sales, that is, the overheated floor is "never deformed". In fact, this is impossible. No matter how to deal with it, the phenomenon of wet expansion and dry shrinkage caused by the change of moisture content of wood below the fiber saturation point is inevitable. Generally speaking, the most common phenomenon in use is that the floor is tiled or arched, which is caused by the damp of the floor. The reasons for the damp of the floor are roughly the following:

(1) moisture in the air (such as huangmeitian)

(2) the floor is not completely dry, and the keel is reinforced with cement

(3) keel, rough floor is too wet

(4) use water-based glue

(5) there is no special moisture-proof treatment in the wet environment such as the first floor

(6) the section at the junction of stone floor and floor is not closed

(7) blisters (such as water pipe rupture, balcony water backflow, etc.)

in addition, the product itself and improper construction will also cause arching. For example, improper drying treatment, insufficient curing, too low moisture content, too shallow back groove, insufficient expansion joints during construction, too tight laying, etc

5 key points for laying and maintenance of solid wood floor:

(1) the floor should be laid at the later stage of construction, and cross construction is not allowed. Polish and paint as soon as possible after laying. So as not to dirty the floor or make it damp and deformed

(2) before laying, the floor should be unpacked and stacked on the laying site for 1 ~ 2 days to make it adapt to the environment, so as to avoid expansion and shrinkage deformation after laying

(3) moisture proof measures shall be taken for laying, especially in damp places such as the bottom layer. Moisture proof measures include coating moisture-proof paint, paving moisture-proof film, using bedding treasure, etc

(4) the keel should be flat and firm. It is forbidden to use cement for reinforcement, and it is best to use expansion bolts, nails, etc

(5) the keel should be made of larch, Liu'an and other wood with strong nail holding force. The moisture content of keel or rough floor should be close to that of floor. The keel spacing should not be too large, generally not more than 30 cm. Both ends of the floor should be placed on the keel, and should not be left empty. Nails must be nailed to each keel. Do not use water-based glue

(6) the floor should not be paved too tightly, enough expansion joints (0.5 ~ 1.2 cm) should be left around, and it should not be laid too wide. In case of wide occasions, it should be separated and cut off, and then press the copper strip for transition

(7) complete isolation and moisture-proof measures shall be taken at the junction of the floor and the stone floor such as the hall, bathroom and kitchen

(8) the color difference of the floor is inevitable. If there are high requirements for color difference, it can be sorted in advance and the method of gradual transition can be adopted to reduce the visual sense of mutation

(9) avoid washing with water during use, avoid long-term sunlight and continuous direct blowing of the air conditioner, and prevent rain forests and hard objects from colliding and rubbing at the window. In order to protect the floor, wax the paint surface (from the perspective of protecting the floor, wax is better than painting)

6 lacquered floor:

lacquered floor is made by the factory on the assembly line. Most of the paint used is UV paint, which is rapidly cured by UV. Its hardness and wear resistance are much higher than ordinary hand paint, but the adhesion is slightly poor

another advantage of lacquered floor is that the whole floor is composed of many fast paint surfaces, so cracks will not appear with the expansion and contraction of the floor

second, solid wood composite floor:

at present, there are two kinds of solid wood composite floor: three-layer and multi-layer

taking meijiajia as an example, the three-layer solid wood composite floor is made of high-quality precious wood flakes on the surface, fast-growing wood in the middle and bottom, and hot pressed with glue. The thickness of the surface layer is about 4 mm, the core layer is about 8 ~ 9 mm, and the bottom layer is about 2 mm. The total thickness is generally 14 ~ 15 mm

the multilayer solid wood composite floor is made of multilayer plywood as the base material, and the surface layer is made of hardwood veneer or planed veneer, which is hot pressed with glue. The number of layers of base plywood must be single, usually three or five layers. If the surface layer is hardwood, the thickness is usually 1.2mm, and the planed board is 0.2 ~ 0.8mm, and the total thickness is usually no more than 12mm

solid wood composite floor has the advantages of natural and beautiful grain of solid wood floor, comfortable foot feeling, sound insulation and heat preservation, and overcomes the shortcomings of easy deformation of solid wood floor (each layer of wood fibers are perpendicular to each other, dispersing deformation and stress). It is large in size and easy to lay

the disadvantage is that degumming will occur if the bonding quality is poor. In addition, due to the thin surface (especially multi-layer), attention must be paid to maintenance during use. Therefore, there are restrictions on the occasion of use

solid wood composite floors are glued with glue, and the amount of formaldehyde released is a very important indicator. The state has mandatory standards for this, namely gb18580-2001< Formaldehyde emission limits of wood-based panels and their products, indoor decoration materials. The standard stipulates that the solid wood composite floor must meet the requirements of grade E1 (formaldehyde emission ≤ 1.5mg/l) and be clearly indicated on the product mark

third, laminate floor (impregnated paper laminated wood floor)

structure: laminate floor is composed of four layers

first layer: wear-resistant layer. It is mainly composed of Al2O3 (aluminum oxide), which has strong wear resistance and hardness. Some reinforced composite floors composed of melamine cannot meet the requirements of the standard

second layer: decorative layer. It is a layer of paper impregnated with melamine resin, and the paper is printed with wood grains or other patterns imitating precious tree species

the third layer: base course. It is a medium density or high-density laminate. After high temperature and high pressure treatment, it has certain moisture-proof and flame-retardant properties. The basic material is wood fiber

the fourth layer: balance layer. It is a layer of kraft paper with a certain strength and thickness, and is impregnated with resin to prevent moisture and floor deformation

main quality indicators:

surface wear-resistant revolutions

public places ≥ 9000 revolutions, household ≥ 6000 revolutions. The above revolutions refer to the initial wear value, that is, the exposed bottom of the surface decoration layer, rather than the final wear value, that is, the floor is completely worn through

the market indicates that the wear-resistant revolution of some reinforced composite floors is very high, but it is likely to be the final value of the target wear-resistant

water absorption thickness expansion rate refers to

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