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The application of laser technology in surface treatment and three-dimensional modeling

laser technology has important applications in information field, manufacturing industry (electronics, semiconductor, machinery, automobile, aircraft and other manufacturing industries), military field, intelligent identification and medical instruments. In particular, laser micro machining poses a great challenge to ordinary micro machining. With the further development of laser technology and the continuous expansion of the market, optical manufacturing technology will replace traditional mechanical manufacturing in all manufacturing fields. The share price of laser micro Mitsubishi materials fell by 8% on November 24. Manufacturing technology makes micro precision components possible, and makes micro systems develop in the direction of diversification and intelligence. Finally, it will be more widely used in automotive, medical and environmental protection fields, It plays an increasingly important role in the national economy and industrial development. The core contents of typical applications of laser in mechanical manufacturing are introduced below

2. Application of laser in heat treatment laser heat treatment technology is a new material surface treatment technology developed in recent 20 years. In recent years, the manufacturing technology of high-power laser and auxiliary equipment has been improved day by day, and various surface treatment technologies have become increasingly mature, which makes the industrial application and in-depth research of laser heat treatment technology extremely active

the principle of laser heat treatment technology is based on the strong penetration ability of laser. When the metal surface is heated to the critical transition temperature only lower than the melting point, its surface is rapidly austenitized, and then rapidly self cooled quenched. The metal surface is rapidly strengthened, that is, laser transformation hardening

laser heat treatment technology can solve the material strengthening problems that cannot be solved by other surface treatment methods. After laser treatment, the surface strength of the cast layer can reach more than HRC60 degrees, and the surface hardness of medium carbon, high carbon steel and alloy steel can reach more than HRC70 degrees, so as to improve their wear resistance, fatigue resistance, corrosion resistance, oxidation resistance and other properties and prolong their service life

3. application of laser in welding

laser welding is one of the important aspects of the application of laser material processing technology. This technology has the characteristics of narrow heat affected zone, small weld seam, no protective atmosphere under atmospheric pressure, no X-ray, and no beam shift in the magnetic field. In addition, it has fast welding speed, no mechanical contact with the workpiece, and can weld magnetic materials, especially high melting point materials and dissimilar metals, And there is no need to add materials, so it is quickly industrialized in the electronic industry. The use of solid YAG laser for seam welding and spot welding in foreign countries has reached a high level. In addition, laser welding of the outgoing line of the printed circuit does not require the use of flux, and can reduce the thermal shock without affecting the circuit die. Since the 1990s, Japan has realized the transformation from spot welding to laser welding in the precision welding of the electronics industry. I hope you will cherish your youth and work hard. At present, laser deep penetration welding is more and more used in the field of powder metallurgy material processing

in a word, compared with ordinary welding methods, laser deep penetration welding has the advantages of fast welding speed, large weld depth width ratio, small heat affected zone and thermal deformation, high weld strength and easy automation, so it is widely used in industry

4. application of laser in cladding coating

laser cladding, also known as laser cladding or laser cladding, is a new surface modification technology. It forms a filler cladding layer combined with metallurgical alloy on the surface of the substrate by adding cladding materials on the surface of the substrate and using high-energy density laser beam to fuse it with the thin layer on the surface of the substrate

because laser cladding can fuse high melting point materials on the surface of low melting point substrates, and the composition of materials is not limited by the usual thermodynamic conditions of metallurgical alloys, the range of cladding materials used is quite wide, including nickel based, cobalt based, iron-based alloys, carbide composite alloy materials and ceramic materials. Among them, laser cladding of alloy materials and carbide composite materials is relatively mature, It has been applied in practice. In addition, due to the fast heating process which is approximately adiabatic due to the high energy density of the laser beam, the laser cladding has little thermal effect on the substrate and causes less deformation. By controlling the input energy of the laser, the dilution effect of the substrate can be limited to a very low level (generally 2%-8%), thus maintaining the excellent performance of the original cladding material

therefore, the technology aims to improve the wear resistance, corrosion resistance and other properties of the material surface. It is mainly used for repairing the worn large and valuable parts and enhancing the performance of newly manufactured parts

5. The application of laser in micro machining

in the early 1990s, with the research and application of micro mechanical manufacturing technology and micro electrical mechanical system (MEMS), a new branch of laser machining, "laser micro machining" is booming. Laser micromachining generally means that the feature size is less than 100 μ M machining is one of the main machining technologies in micro machine manufacturing

the essence of laser processing is that the laser transmits energy to the processed materials, and the processed materials undergo physical or chemical changes to achieve the purpose of processing. Laser micromachining technology can not only process complex micro structures, but also require less stringent conditions than anisotropic etching and LIGA technology. It is easy to realize in laboratories and factories. Due to the high temporal and spatial resolution of laser, it is possible to further promote and apply it in occasions requiring high-precision machining (such as electronics, semiconductor, communication and other industries), Therefore, laser micromachining presents a huge challenge to ordinary micromachining

6. The application of laser in three-dimensional modeling and intelligent recognition of objects

modernization is mainly reflected in the high-tech industry with high working frequency. Components on the unmanned production line (line for short), such as electronic components, electronic connectors, metal parts and non-metal parts, especially some radioactive or toxic components, usually need real-time dynamic recognition or detection to determine their shape, status and accuracy. The above functions can be easily realized by using laser and dynamic positioning technology

the acquisition method of laser 3D information is to use the laser irradiation to scan the line element, use the instantaneous dynamic positioning system equipped with more than two cameras, establish and compile the intelligent recognition software according to the characteristics of the line element, use the feature recognition mode method, and compile the data processing and modeling, intelligent teaching software based on the principle of fuzzy mathematics. According to the complexity of the line element shape, increase the number of cameras and laser scanners accordingly, Finally, laser dynamic recognition of line element is realized

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